The Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA) estimates that the production of 11 major food crops will go up by additional 4.1 million (4,113,436) metric tonnes in the 2021/2022 crop season, compared to the figured for 2020/2021 crop season.
The 11 major crops
This comprises four cereals, namely maize, paddy rice, millet; four starch
staples, namely cassava, yam, cocoyam and plantain; and three legumes which are groundnut, cowpea and soya bean.
44.8m metric tonnes of crops produced in 2021
In the 2020/2021 crop season, the country produced 44.8 million (44,817,752) metric tonnes of the 11 major food crops combined.
Production to rise to 48.9m in 2022
MoFA estimates that production of the 11 major food crops combined will rise to 48.9 million (48,931,188) metric tonnes in the current 2021/2022 crop season.
Production of cereals, starchy staples and legumes is expected to rise by 15.7%, 8.4% and 10.7% respectively.
Access to and rising cost of inputs, a threat
However, access to and rising cost of agricultural inputs constitutes a major threat to the achievement of these projections.
50kg bag of Urea now GH¢350
Farmers are likely to pay more per 50 kg bag of Urea because prices have shot up to between GH¢300 and GH¢350 per 50kg bag of Urea, because international prices are on the rise.
Subsidised 25kg jumps from GH¢62 to GH¢160
A 25kg of subsidised fertiliser, which sold at GH¢62 last year, is now selling at GH¢160.
In the fourth quarter of 2021 (October to December), fertiliser was sold on the international market for GH¢805 per tonne, but in Ghana it sold at GH¢947 per tonne.
227% increase in fertiliser price
This translates into an increase of about 227% from the first quarter of 2019 to the last quarter of 2021 for international prices and 151% increase on the retail market.
Factors affecting fertiliser price
Many factors affected the increase in international prices, including soaring of gas prices, which increased production cost, leading to the shutting down of some fertiliser producing plants and fertiliser export restrictions by some producer countries.
Cereals to rise to 5.3m metric tonnes
Combined production of four cereals, namely maize, paddy rice, millet and sorghum is projected to record 15.73% increase to hit 5.3 million (5,309,115) metric tonnes in 2021/2022 crop season compared to 4.5 million (4,587,241) metric tonnes recorded in the 2020/2021 crop season.
Starch staples to go up to 42.6m metric tonnes
In addition, production of four starch staples, namely cassava, yam, cocoyam and plantain is also estimated to go up by 8.38% from 39.3 million (39,342,737) metric tonnes in the 2020/2021 season to 42.6 million (42,639,355) metric tonnes in 2021/2022.
Legumes to increase to 982,718 metric tonnes
In respect of three legumes – groundnut, cowpea and soya bean– production volumes are expected to rise by 10.69% to 982,718 metric tonnes in 2021/2022 from the 887,774 metric tonnes produced in the 2021/2022 crop season.
Maize – 3.5m metric tonnes (18.23% increase)
Maize is projected to record 18.23% increase from over three million (3,031,691) metric tonnes in 2020/2021 season to 3.5 million (3,584,501) metric tonnes in the 2021/2022 crop season.
Paddy rice – over 1m metric tonnes (8.69% increase)
For paddy rice, production is expected to go up by 8.69% from 986,905 metric tonnes in 2020/2021 crop season to over one million (1,072,682) metric tonnes in the 2021/2022 crop season.
Millet –264,897 metric tonnes (18.67% increase)
In respect of millet, production is expected to increase by 18.67% rise to 264,897 metric tonnes in 2021/2022 crop season from 223,223 metric tonnes in 2020/2021.
Sorghum – 387,035 metric tonnes (12.05% increase)
The data shows that sorghum production is also to increase by 12.05% from 345,421 metric tonnes in 2020/2021 to 387,035 metric tonnes in the 2021/2022 crop season.
Cassava–24.7m metric tonnes (7.62% increase)
For starch staple foods, cassava is projected to go up by 7.62% from 22.9 million (22,964,205) metric tonnes in 2020/2021 to 24.7 million (24,713,165) metric tonnes in the 2021/2022 crop season.
Yam–9.4m metric tonnes (7.75% increase)
Yam production is expected to record 7.75% rise to 9.4 million (9,482,716) metric tonnes in the 2021/2022 crop season from the 8.8 million (8,800,822) metric tonnes in 2020/2021.
Cocoyam–2.1m metric tonnes (1.44% increase)
It is estimated that cocoyam production will also rise by 1.44% to 2.1 million (2,194,866) metric tonnes in the 2021/2022 crop season from the 2.1 million (2,163,724) metric tonnes recorded in the 2020/2021 crop season.
Plantain–5.4m metric tonnes (15.42% increase)
In respect of plantain, production which hit 5.4 million (5,413,987) metric tonnes in the 2020/2021 crop season is expected to rise by 15.42% to 6.2 million (6,248,608) metric tonnes in the 2021/2022 crop season.
Groundnut–478,590 metric tonnes (13.34% increase)
The data on legumes show that groundnut production is expected to go up by 13.34% to 478,590 metric tonnes in the 2021/2022 crop season from the 422,262 metric tonnes recorded in the 2020/2021 crop season
Cowpea–263,269 metric tonnes (7.38% increase)
Cowpea production is also expected to shoot up by 7.38% from the 263,269 metric tonnes recorded in the 2020/2021 crop season to 282,699 metric tonnes in the 2021/2022 crop season.
Soya bean–221,429 metric tonnes (9.49% increase)
Production of soya bean is expected to also increase by 9.49% from 202,243 metric tonnes recorded in the 2020/2021 crop season to 221,429 metric tonnes in the 2021/2022 crop season.
The food and nutrition security conditions of the country continue to be stable as harvests of main staples progressed in all agro-ecological zones during the last quarter of 2021.
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