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Causes of recurrent and frequent pregnancy losses



Pregnancy, losses, Newscenta, miscarriages, childbirth,
Dr Michael Baah Biney. Photo: Dr Biney

Pregnancy and childbirth are a gift from God and even when pregnancy is unplanned, they are often wanted.

Frequent and recurrent pregnancy losses have broken homes.

In-laws are at loggerheads with each other due to pregnancy losses often in African settings because blacks place a high premium on childbirth.

Even when we can’t take care of the children due to financial issues, we still want pregnancy and childbirth.

Many women spend time at prayer camps because of recurrent pregnancy losses. Many are seeing diviners due to the same reason.


Many times, women are hesitant to discuss spontaneous pregnancy losses or miscarriages.

While a single pregnancy loss may not call for a trip to the doctor, two or more ought to trigger a full assessment for reproductive problems.

Frequent pregnancy losses are sometimes thought of as a way ancestors and deities met out punishment for wrongdoings. Let’s see what science has to say about today’s topic

The causes of recurrent pregnancy loss have been identified thanks to significant developments in obstetrics and gynecology (reproductive medicine).
A woman might not have known the cause of her consecutive pregnancy losses in the past, but in roughly 60% of cases, an exact diagnosis is now achievable.

A 15-year-old couple in an attempt to get a child had seen a lot of people who claim they are capable of helping with childbirth.


Their next stop was the consulting room for the umpteenth time.

They had had eight pregnancies which didn’t amount to childbirth.

Due to these happenings, the woman was called all sorts of names including a witch, eater of children, barren, good for nothing etc.

The husband had been influenced by his mother to divorce the lady or get a second wife.

He didn’t badge to the advice so had a sore relationship with his mother.


The mother says the lady has bewitched him.

There are many reasons which are categorized under headings like hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, immunological factors, and genetic factors.

It is an established fact that more than 15 % of miscarriages don’t have an identifiable cause.

The remaining 85% is largely caused by genetic abnormalities medical named aneuploidy.

Today, our topic will border on recurrent/frequent unexplained pregnancy losses. According to Medscape, it affects 10 to 15% of couples.


Genetic abnormalities

Aneuploidy (chromosomal aberrations) is thought to be a mechanism nature spontaneously aborts children forming with a lot of deformities.

You don’t want to have children with a lot of abnormalities. So think of this mechanism as a way nature discards what is not fit for nature like no lungs, no nose, no heart etc due to this aneuploidy.

These are related more to women in their advanced ages of 35 years and above trying to give birth.

Pre-implantation genetic studies medically termed karyotype can be used to investigate some of these abnormalities.


This is what is done in artificial insemination (eg IVF) to ensure that embryos formed are viable and compatible with nature.

When embryos formed by IVF are found not to be viable it is discarded to forestall pregnancy loss associated with these genetic aberrations.

Problems of the womb

Structural issues may be from birth or may arise later in life like fibroids and uterine polyps (growth protruding into the inner lying of the womb).

Fibroid depending on the position can inhibit pregnancy.


This is not to say that being diagnosed with fibroid means frequent pregnancy losses- not at all.

People have huge fibroids but still, give birth. So fibroids may cause frequent pregnancy losses depending on the position, number, and hormonal imbalances that may be associated with them.

Problems with the womb which are from birth are malformations called Mullerian malformations.

These dysmorphologies are present even when the female is yet to be born.

What you can do is that don’t worry if you have ever had lost pregnancies in the past.


Don’t turn a blind eye to any pregnancy lost. See the gynecologist to investigate what possibly may be the cause.

Hormonal imbalances

In menstruation, pregnancy, and reproductive health, hormones are the ‘legal tender’.

No hormones, no menstruation, and pregnancy. Sometimes, a growing fetus (baby) can abort unprovoked due to the withdrawal of some of these hormones.

Hormones are chemical released to drive an effect in this instance, pregnancy.


You may never know why you may have lost pregnancies in the past so see the gynecologist if you have fertility wishes or frequent pregnancy lost.

Catch me next time as we continue with other causes of frequent and recurrent pregnancy losses.


By Dr Michael Baah Biney


Measles, Polio and other childhood vaccines dispatched to regions



Childhood vaccines, Newscenta, Polio, Measles, Ministry of Health, Regions,

The Ministry of Health (MoH) and the Ghana Health Service (GHS) have received the first consignment of Measles vaccines, Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccines and Oral Polio Vaccines.

The Ministry of Information in a statement said distribution to various regions and facilities was underway.

It noted that more vaccines are expected in Ghana in the coming weeks from multiple sources.

“More vaccines expected in Ghana in the coming weeks from multiple sources,” the Information Ministry added.

It shared pictures of the GHS receiving the vaccines at the airport noting that they have already begun distributing them to various regions and facilities.


The ministry also shared photos of regional cold vans picking their consignments of the Measles, BCG and Oral Polio vaccines received and its accompanying logistics at the National Cold Room in Accra.

Ghana ran out of essential BCG and OPV vaccines as a result of the Ministry of Health’s failure to secure procurement of these vaccines since the year began.

The BCG vaccine is primarily needed to prevent the occurrence of tuberculosis in babies, while the OPV is to prevent polio infections

Other essential vaccines to prevent diseases such as measles, whooping cough, etc. are also in short supply.

Answering to parliament on the shortages, Health Minister Kwaku Agyeman Manu said that more than $6 million has been paid to United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) to deliver baby vaccines.


According to him, the government expects the shortage to end in the next three weeks when all the vaccines are delivered.

Whilst urging the Legislators to approve funds needed for vaccines, he assured that shortages will not reoccur

“The assurance I will give and I can give for the first time in the Chamber is that this will not happen again and I will advise that you help me in my advocacy to get adequate funding for vaccines even the health insurance budget,” he appealed.

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No measles deaths in 20yrs, vaccines arriving soon  



Vaccines, Newscenta, measles, BCG, polio, immunisation,

The Minister of Health, Kwaku Agyeman-Manu, has assured parents of children who are yet to receive their scheduled vaccines due to the vaccine shortage currently being experienced in the country that the country will take delivery of these vaccines in the next few weeks.

He gave this assurance at an emergency press briefing organised to address the raging issue which has seen many worried parents moving from facility to facility in a desperate search for the crucial vaccines.

The Minister in his address stated that the nation is currently facing a shortage of some vaccines.

He said, “it is true we have had some vaccine shortages in the country since the last quarter of 2022. The vaccines in short supply are BCG, Measles-Rubella (MR), and Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV). This shortage is nationwide.”

Agyemang-Manu however assured that  “the Ministry of Health has been making efforts to ensure we secure adequate stocks of vaccines despite this global challenge.”


He went further to state that, “we have made all necessary efforts to ensure that despite these challenges we secure adequate stocks within the next few weeks.”

He disclosed that the country has not recorded deaths caused by measles outbreak in parts of the country.

The Health Minister indicated that there had been no recorded measles-related deaths in the country in the last 20 years, even though there have been sporadic outbreaks.

He further indicated that besides the shortage of vaccines, there had been a global decline in vaccinations with the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in late 2019.

He said, “the recent shortage in vaccines for measles, as regrettable as it is, is symptomatic of the steady global decline in measles vaccination since the beginning of the covid-19 pandemic.”


Agyemang-Manu however assures the citizenry that the nation’s vaccination coverage remains robust, with immunization performance coverage being among the best in the world.

According to him, “in 2021 we recorded 95% [vaccine] coverage.”

In recent months there has been a desperate scramble among worried parents of toddlers over the apparent shortage of vaccines for the six childhood killer diseases in the nation’s pharmacies and hospitals.

This coupled with an outbreak of the measles-rubella virus has left parents worrying about the safety of their children.


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Ghana: Zipline delivers 14.8m lifesaving medical products



Zipline, drones, Newscenta, 14.8m deliveries, 2022, medical products,

Zipline, the world’s first and only national-scale drone delivery service has delivered some 14.8 million (14,809,463) units of lifesaving medical, vaccines and blood products to health facilities in Ghana as at the end of 2022

309,000 delivery flights

These items were delivered through 309,000 separate delivery flights.

4.4m units delivered

The total units delivered amounted to 4.4 million.


8.3m doses of childhood vaccines

Childhood vaccines top the list with the delivery of 8.3 million doses.

2.05m doses of COVID-19 vaccines

It is followed by COVID-19 vaccines which recorded 2.05 million doses.

48,588 doses of malaria vaccines


The company delivered 48,588 doses of malaria vaccines during the period

10,875 pints of blood

Some 10,875 blood units were also delivered during the period.

Zipline, drones, Newscenta, 14.8m deliveries, 2022, medical products,

6 Zipline distribution centers

The six  Zipline distribution centers delivers lifesaving medical, vaccines and blood products to over 2,500 health facilities.


Zipline introduced in April 2019

Ghana integrated Zipline’s medical drone delivery service into its health supply chain in April 2019 with an initial support from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the UPS Foundation and other partners.

Instant access to health commodities

Zipline enables instant access to hundreds of health commodities for thousands of health facilities across the country.

Autonomous drones


This marked the first time in history that autonomous drones have been used to make regular long-range deliveries into densely populated urban areas.

Zipline reaches half the population

Zipline’s current network in Ghana can reach up to half the population.

Life-saving care

All too often, people requiring life-saving care do not get the medicine they need when they need it.


Reduce medical waste

To increase access and reduce medical waste, key stock of blood products, vaccines, and life-saving medications are stored at Zipline’s base for just-in-time delivery.

Health workers place orders

Health workers place orders by text message or call and promptly receive their deliveries in 30 minutes on average.

Drones deliver the orders


The drones take off from and land at Zipline’s base, requiring no additional infrastructure or manpower at the clinics they serve.

Each drone can carry 1.8 kilos of cargo

The drones fly autonomously and can carry 1.8 kilos of cargo, cruising at 110km an hour, and have a round trip range of 160km—even in high-speed winds and rain.

How Zipline works

Each week, a single Zipline distribution centre – a combination of medical fulfilment warehouse and drone airport – is capable of the on-demand delivery of more than two tonnes of temperature-controlled medicine to any point across an almost 8,000 square mile service area.


Zipline, drones, Newscenta, 14.8m deliveries, 2022, medical products,

30 to 45 minutes deliveries

Each aircraft can fly 100 miles round trip, in strong winds and rain, day or night, to make on-demand deliveries in 30 to 45 minutes on average.

Zipline’s drones have flown more than five million autonomous miles to deliver more than 1.5 million doses of vaccines, units of blood, and critical and life-saving medications to more than a thousand health facilities serving more than 25 million people across three countries.

Zipline in United States

In the United States, Zipline has partnered with a leading healthcare system, Novant Health, on the country’s first drone logistics operation by a hospital system for pandemic response.


To date, Novant Health has utilised Zipline to make contactless drone distribution of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to frontline medical teams around Charlotte, North Carolina.

Zipline operating in Kaduna and Cross River States in Nigeria

Zipline recently commenced medical delivery services in Kaduna and Cross River States in Nigeria as its footprint grows across Africa.

Set to begin commercial operations in Côte D’Ivoire and Kenya

The company is set to begin commercial operations in Côte D’Ivoire and Kenya this week bringing to five countries in Africa to have adopted the technology.






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